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An Evidence Based Approach to Programming

Here is the introduction to a chapter on personal training that I have been working on. This chapter covers programming.

When putting together a resistance training program it is particularly useful to identify and group different types of movement patterns. Once fundamental movement patterns have been identified the trainer can prescribe the appropriate exercises that fit the client’s capabilities for the pattern. Multi-joint movements in strength training programs have been grouped in a variety of different ways. For example Kritz et. al. states that there are seven fundamental patterns; squat pattern, lunge pattern, upper body push pattern, upper-body pull patterns, bend patterns, twist pattern and single leg pattern (Kritz 2010). Strength coaches Nick Tumminello and Juan Carlos Santana talk about the five pillars of movement which include locomotion, rotation, pushing, pulling, and raising and lowering the center of gravity.

Patterns have been broken up into several different ways. Irrespective of the name of the pattern, being able to differentiate between certain movements is an important part of putting an effective and balanced program together. For the sake of the text we will identify eleven and then describe exercises that fit into each category.

(1)   Hip hinge patterns

(2)   Squat pattern

(3)   Single leg hip dominant

(4)   Single leg knee dominant

(5)   Lunge pattern

(6)   Upper body vertical push pattern

(7)   Upper body vertical pull pattern

(8)   Upper body horizontal push pattern

(9)   Upper body horizontal pull pattern

(10)  Locomotion

(11)   Rotation

This chapter will focus specifically on identification of exercises that fall into each category and will very briefly touch on coaching and what basic muscle actions are used for each movement. Subsequent chapters will focus on coaching the actual movements. Particular attention is spent on the squat and hinge patterns.

Continue reading by clicking the link here CLIENT PROGRAMMING

After reading this chapter I recommend reading this ACSM resistance training for healthy adults


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  1. Pingback: FIT 3 Personal Training | Blood and Iron

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